Tasker, 1964. R.V.G. Tasker, The Greek New Testament: Being the Text Translated in The New English Bible. London: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Tasker presents the text which underlies the New English Bible (New Testament, 1961), a British version which, because of its unusual renderings, had given rise to many questions about the text. Tasker also included an appendix of Notes on Variant Readings for the marginal readings of the NEB.

Taylor, 1961. Vincent Taylor, The Text of the New Testament. London: MacMillan & Co., 1961.

Thayer, 1893. Joseph Henry Thayer, Books and their Use: An Address, to which is appended a List of Books for Students of the New Testament. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1893

Thompson, 1879. E.M. Thompson, Facsimile of the Codex Alexandrinus. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1879-83. 4 volumes. New Testament (volume 4) published in 1879.

A photographic facsimile of the Codex Alexandrinus. In the Spring of 2006 the New Testament volume was made available on the internet by The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts.

Throckmorton, 1979. Burton H. Throckmorton, Jr., Gospel Parallels, A Synopsis of the first three Gospels with alternative Readings from the Manuscripts and noncanonical Parallels. 4th ed. New York: Thomas Nelson, 1979.

Includes a very helpful discussion of witnesses in the "Introduction to Footnote References" (pp. v-xvi).

Tischendorf, 1841. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece. Textum ad fidem antiquorum testium recensuit: brevem Apparatum Criticum, una cum Variis Lectionibus Elzevirorum, Knappii, Scholzii, Lachmanni subjunxit; Argumenta et Locos Parallelos indicavit; Commentationem Isagogicam, notatis propriis lectionibus Edd. Stephanicae tertiae atque Millianae, Matthaeianae, Griesbachianae, praemisit Ænotheus Fridericus Constantinus Tischendorf. Lipsiae: Köhler, 1841.

The first edition of Tischendorf, in which he is even more bold than Lachmann 1831 in departing from the Received Text. The second edition retracted the more precarious readings of the first, and included a statement of critical principles (see Tischendorf 1849). For an account of Tischendorf's work see Matthew Black and Robert Davidson, Constantin von Tischendorf and the Greek New Testament (Glasgow: University of Glasgow Press, 1981).

Tischendorf, 1843. Constantin Tischendorf, Codex Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus sive Fragmenta Novi Testamenti. Leipsic, 1843.

The first printed edition of the Codex Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus.

Tischendorf, 1849. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece. Ad antiquos testes recensuit, Apparatum Criticum multis modis auctum et correctum apposuit, Commentationem Isagogicam praemisit Constantinus Tischendorf, Theol. Dr. et Prof. Editio Lipsiensis secunda. Lipsiae: Winter, 1849.

This is the second principal recension of Tischendorf (as enumerated in Reuss 1872). The Introduction sets forth the following canons of criticism with examples of their application (see Tregelles 1854, pp. 119-21):

Basic rule: "The text is only to be sought from ancient evidence, and especially from Greek manuscripts, but without neglecting the testimonies of versions and fathers."
1. "A reading altogether peculiar to one or another ancient document is suspicious; as also is any, even if supported by a class of documents, which seems to evince that it has originated in the revision of a learned man."
2. "Readings, however well supported by evidence, are to be rejected, when it is manifest (or very probable) that they have proceeded from the errors of copyists."
3. "In parallel passages, whether of the New or Old Testament, especially in the Synoptic Gospels, which ancient copyists continually brought into increased accordance, those testimonies are preferable, in which precise accordance of such parallel passages is not found; unless, indeed, there are important reasons to the contrary."
4. "In discrepant readings, that should be preferred which may have given occasion to the rest, or which appears to comprise the elements of the others."
5. "Those readings must be maintained which accord with New Testament Greek, or with the particular style of each individual writer."

The readings of this edition are collated against Estienne 1550 in the appendix of Tregelles 1854.

Tischendorf, 1852. Constantin Tischendorf, Codex Claromontanus, sive Epistulae Pauli omnes Graece et Latine e codice Parisiensi celeberrimo nomine Claromantani [Codex Claromontanus, being the Greek and Latin of all the Epistles of Paul from the Celebrated Parisian Codex called Claromontanus]. Leipsic, 1852.

The first printed edition of the Codex Claromontanus.

Tischendorf, 1856. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece. Ad antiquos testes denuo recensuit, Apparatum Criticum omni studio perfectum apposuit, Commentationem Isagogicam praetextuit Constantinus Tischendorf. Editio Septima. Lipsiae: Winter, 1856, 1859. 2 vols.

The seventh edition, and third principal recension of Tischendorf (as enumerated in Reuss 1872). The four Gospels of this text are translated in Folsom 1869, and the entire New Testament in Noyes 1869.

Tischendorf, 1862. Constantin Tischendorf, Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. St. Petersburg, 1862. 4 vols. New Testament volume 4. Reprinted in Hildersheim, 1969.

In this splendid typographical facsimile edition (published under the auspices of Czar Alexander II of Russia) Tischendorf first presented the text of the Codex Sinaiticus, which he discovered in a Convent at the foot of Mount Sinai. Prior to its publication Tischendorf had given a descriptive account of the manuscript with a sample of its readings in Notitia editionis Codicis Bibliorum Sinaitici auspiciis Imperatoris Alexandri II. susceptæ ... Edidit Ænoth. Frid. Const. Tischendorf, &c. (Leipsic, 1860).

Tischendorf, 1863. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Sinaiticum cum Epistola Barnabae et fragmentis Pastoris, &c. Leipzig, 1863.

The New Testament, together with the Epistle of Barnabas and a fragment of the Shepherd of Hermas, according to the Codex Sinaiticus.

Tischendorf, 1865. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece ex Sinaitico codice omnium antiquissimo. Leipzig, 1865. Octavo.

The New Testament from the Codex Sinaiticus in ordinary type.

Tischendorf, 1867. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Vaticanum post Angeli Maii aliorumque imperfectos labores ex ipso codice edidit Æ.F.C. Tischendorf [The Vatican New Testament, after the imperfect work of Angelo Mai and others, edited from the manuscript itself]. Leipsig: Giesecke et Devrient, 1867. Corrected and supplemented in Appendix Novi Testamenti Vaticani (Leipsig, 1869).

Tischendorf's common type edition of the Codex Vaticanus was the first reliable one available to scholars.

Tischendorf, 1869. Constantin Tischendorf, Novum Testamentum Graece, ad antiquissimos testes denuo recensuit apparatum criticum omni studio perfectum apposuit commentationem isagogicam praetexuit Constantinus Tischendorf, editio octava critica maior. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1869 (vol 1), 1872 (vol 2). Prolegomena scripsit Caspar Renatus Gregory additis curis Ezrae Abbot (vol 3), 1884 (part 1), 1890 (part 2), 1894 (part 3). The first two volumes reprinted in Graz (Austria) by Akademische Druck-U. Verlagsanstalt, 1965.

Tischendorf's eighth edition (containing the fourth principal recension, as enumerated in Reuss 1872) is still the standard scholarly source for comprehensive information concerning the various readings of manuscripts. Tischendorf followed a method similar to that of Lachmann, in that he gave decisive weight to the oldest manuscripts without balancing their testimony against that of the Received Text. Unlike Lachmann, however, he did make some limited use of "internal" evidence (see Tischendorf 1849). Tischendorf also collected a much greater body of information than Lachmann, and his prodigious apparatus of variants has secured for his text a permanent value. In his text, he displayed a marked preference for two manuscripts in particular: Codex Vaticanus, which was the oldest known Greek manuscript, and Codex Sinaiticus, which was discovered by Tischendorf himself. Codex Sinaiticus is very similar to Codex Vaticanus, and of comparable age. The united testimony of these two manuscripts dominated Tischendorf's eighth edition. The year after the second volume appeared, Tischendorf was disabled by a stroke (1873), and in 1874 he died. He was prevented, therefore, from finishing the Prolegomena of the 8th edition, and this task was given to C.R. Gregory. The text of this edition is translated in Davidson 1875, and collated against Estienne 1550 in Newberry 1877 and in Scrivener and Nestle 1906.

Tischendorf, 1869 b. Constantinus Tischendorf, The New Testament: The Authorised English Version; With Introduction, and Various Readings From the Three Most Celebrated Manuscripts of the Original Greek Text. Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1869.

Here is printed the King James version with a full English apparatus of variants from Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, and Codex Alexandrinus. On the average, there is one variant given for every verse; and in fact, many significant readings given here are not to be found in the apparatus of Aland et al. 1979. The reader should take note, however, of the words on page xv of Tischendorf's Introduction: "Many obvious blunders which are found in the manuscripts are passed over in silence." Hence, such embarrassments as under a candlestick in Mark 4:21 (a clear error found in both Vaticanus and Sinaiticus) are not indicated.

Townley, 1821. James Townley, Illustrations of Biblical Literature, exhibiting the History and Fate of the Sacred Writings, from the earliest Period to the present Century: including Biographical Notices of Translators and other eminent Biblical Scholars. London, 1821. 3 vols.

Townley, 1828. James Townley, An Introduction to the Literary History of the Bible. London, 1828.

Tregelles, 1854. Samuel P. Tregelles, An Account of the Printed Text of the Greek New Testament, with Remarks on its Revision upon Critical Principles, together with a collation of the critical texts of Griesbach, Scholz, Lachmann and Tischendorf with that in common use. London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, 1854.

Tregelles gives a careful and detailed history of the printed "Received Text" and of the early critical editions, along with explanations of commonly applied critical principles. In an appendix he presents a complete collation of Elzevir 1624, Griesbach 1805, Scholz 1830, Lachmann 1842, and Tischendorf 1849 against Estienne 1550.

Tregelles, 1856. Samuel P. Tregelles, An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament. London, 1856. Also published as volume 4 of the 10th edition of T.H. Horne's An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. Supplemented in the 11th edition of Horne's Introduction (1860) with 34 pages of Additions and Postscript dated Nov. 1, 1860.

The Introduction of Tregelles, though more than a century old, is well worth reading today; his leisurely descriptions of the manuscripts and his lucid presentation of the history of critical theory are more satisfactory than any Introduction to be published since, and he answers the overwrought theories of later critics (such as Westcott and Hort) well enough in his discussion of their scholarly progenitors. His chapter VIII, "Discussions on Recensions," is surprisingly pertinent in this respect. Tregelles later referred to this work as containing the appropriate Prolegomena to his critical edition of the Greek text (see Tregelles 1857).

Tregelles, 1857. Samuel P. Tregelles, The Greek New Testament, edited from ancient authorities; with the various readings of all the ancient MSS., the ancient versions, and earlier ecclesiastical writers (to Eusebius inclusive); together with the Latin version of Jerome, from the Codex Amiatinus of the sixth century. London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, 1857-1872.

Published by subscription in 6 parts. Part I, Matthew and Mark, 1857; Part II, Luke and John, 1861; Part III, Acts and Catholic Epistles, 1865; Part IV, Romans through 2 Thes 3:3, 1869; Part V, 2 Thes 3:3 through Philemon, 1870; Part VI, Revelation, 1872. After the death of Dr. Tregelles, an additional Part VII was published, Prolegomena, and Addenda and Corrigenda, compiled and edited by F.J.A. Hort and A.W. Streane, 1879. The Prolegomena were compiled from Tregelles 1854 and Tregelles 1856.

Tregelles published a critical text constructed on the same method as Lachmann, habitually adopting the readings most widely attested among the earliest witnesses to the text. Like Tischendorf, however, Tregelles took into consideration a much larger body of information than Lachmann, including all Greek manuscripts down to the seventh century, plus the earliest patristic citations and versions. His text was well received by scholars, especially in England, and the statement of evidence in his apparatus was generally acknowledged to be the most accurate of all critical editions. But the following quote from Schaff 1891, p. 264, explains why Tregelles' very worthy edition was almost immediately eclipsed by Tischendorf's edition of 1869: "The Gospels were printed in 1857 and 1860, before the publication of Codex Sinaiticus (which he first inspected in Tischendorf's house at Leipsic in 1862), and the printing of the Pauline epistles had begun in 1865, before Vercellone's edition of Codex Vaticanus (which appeared in 1868)." The text, together with the significant marginal alternatives, is translated into English in Rotherham 1878. It is collated against Estienne 1550 in Newberry 1877 without Tregelles' marginal alternatives, and in Scrivener and Nestle 1906 with the marginal alternatives.

For a brief biography of Tregelles see Hywel R. Jones, Samuel Tregelles, 1813-1875: Background to Modern Translations of the Bible. London: Evangelical Library, 1975. (From the Evangelical Library's Annual Lecture Series.) See also G.H. Fromow, ed., B.W. Newton and Dr. S.P. Tregelles, Teachers of the Faith and Future, 1959. Incidental mention of Tregelles' part in the history of the Plymouth Brethren is made by F. Roy Coad in his History of the Brethren Movement (London: Paternoster Press, 1968).

Turner, 1924. Cuthbert Hamilton Turner, The Early Printed Editions of the Greek Testament. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1924.

Turner, 1968. Eric G. Turner, Greek Papyri: An Introduction. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968.

Tyndale, 1526. William Tyndale, The Newe Testamente. 1526.

This is the first edition of Tyndale's New Testament, based upon Erasmus 1522.

Tyndale, 1534. William Tyndale, The newe Testament, dylygently corrected and compared with the Greke by Willyam Tindale: and fynesshed in the yere of oure Lorde God A.M.D. & xxxiiii in the moneth of Nouember. Imprinted at Antwerp by Marten Emperowr, Anno M.D. xxxiiii. (1534).

The second edition of Tyndale's New Testament.

Tyndale, 1535. William Tyndale, The New Testament yet once again corrected by William Tyndale. Printed in Antwerp by Martin de Keyser and published by Godfrey van der Haghen, 1535.

The third or "GH" edition of Tyndale's New Testament.