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Abbot, 1888. Ezra Abbot, Critical Essays. Boston, 1888.
Aland, 1963. Kurt Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum, Locis parallelis evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis edidit Kurt Aland. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1963; 13th edition 1985.
In this synopsis of the four Gospels Aland presents a critical apparatus of variant readings much fuller than that of his Novum Testamentum graece (see Aland et al. 1979), but still falls short of Tischendorf. Among easily obtainable resources, this work is the most complete with respect to the Gospels.
Aland, 1963 b. Kurt Aland, Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1963. 2nd edition revised and enlarged, 1994.
This is the standard reference for Greek manuscripts of the New Testament. It lists the manuscripts with the designations currently accepted as standard among scholars, and replaces the one compiled by Gregory (see Gregory 1908), although Gregory's system of notation is employed. It also contains a concordant list of manuscript symbols used by Gregory, Tischendorf, and von Soden.
Aland, Black, Metzger, Wikren, 1966 . Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce Metzger, Allen Wikren, The Greek New Testament. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1966; 2nd ed. 1968 (for which Carlo Martini was added to the editorial committee); 3rd ed. 1975 (corrected printing, 1983); 4th ed. 1993 (editors Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo Martini, Bruce Metzger).
The publisher of this text, United Bible Societies (UBS), is an association of Bible societies from five countries: The American Bible Society, The National Bible Society of Scotland, the Württemberg Bible Institute (now called the German Bible Society), the Netherlands Bible Society, and the British and Foreign Bible Society. The association was created in 1955 for the purpose of producing this text, and it now manages international Bible publication and distribution operations which in the past had been performed chiefly by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
The UBS edition was designed to meet the practical needs of translators sponsored by the member Bible societies, and so its apparatus presents the various readings of the manuscripts only in places where a choice between certain well-attested readings will have an important affect upon translation. For each of these places the reading of the text is graded A, B, C, or D according to whether the reading was adopted by the editors with certainty, near certainty, with difficulty, or with great difficulty. For the convenience of translators a punctuation apparatus is given below the textual apparatus, showing how the text is punctuated in several other texts and versions. Beneath that, cross-references are given together with specification of the words and phrases to which they refer. The text is set in paragraphs and larger sections, and supplied with section headings in English.
The text of the first edition (1966) was a tentative revision of the text of Nestle 1927. A second edition with a few important changes appeared in 1968 (see Aland Black Metzger Wikren Martini 1968). In 1975 the third edition presented a substantially different text (see Aland Black Metzger Wikren Martini 1975), which was repeated without change in the fourth edition (1993).
Aland, Black, Metzger, Wikren, Martini, 1968. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce Metzger, Allen Wikren, Carlo Martini, The Greek New Testament. 2nd edition. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1968.
This edition presents a modest revision of the text of the first UBS edition (see Aland Black Metzger Wikren 1966). Worthy of note is the fact that for this edition a Roman Catholic scholar, Carlo Martini, has been added to the editorial committee.
Aland, Black, Metzger, Wikren, Martini, 1975. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Bruce Metzger, Allen Wikren, Carlo Martini, The Greek New Testament. 3rd edition. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1975. Corrected printing, 1983.
The third edition of the United Bible Societies text was altered in more than 500 places from the first edition (see Aland Black Metzger Wikren 1966), most of the changes being made at the suggestion of Kurt Aland. Since 1952 Aland had been co-editor of the "Nestle-Aland" editions of the Württembergische Bibelanstalt along with Erwin Nestle (see Nestle 1927), and he appears to have been the dominant member of the UBS committee from the start. The text of the UBS third edition was in fact so much in accordance with Aland's preferences that he chose to adopt it with changes in punctuation only as the text for the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland (see Aland et al. 1979). The differences between the UBS 3rd edition and the 26th edition of Nestle-Aland are to be found only in their apparatus and other marginal equipment (compare the descriptions under Aland Black Metzger Wikren 1966 and Aland et al. 1979).
In the corrected third edition of UBS (1983) the punctuation of the text was conformed to that of Nestle-Aland 26. The fourth edition (1993) makes no changes in the text, but presents a thoroughly revised critical apparatus. This is the most widely used student's edition today.
For a detailed explanation and defense of the text of the UBS third edition see Metzger 1975. For a thorough explanation of the apparatus see Aland and Aland 1981. For an English version that closely follows the text see the New Revised Standard Version. For an literal interlinear translation see Douglas 1990. For collations of the text against Nestle 25 see the appendix of Aland et al. 1979 and David Holly, Comparative Studies in Recent Greek New Testament Texts: Nestle-Aland's 25th and 26th Editions (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1983). For a collection in English of its significant variations from the text underlying the King James version see the marginal annotations of the New King James Version.
Aland et al., 1979. Kurt Aland et al., Novum Testamentum Graece post Eberhard Nestle et Erwin Nestle communiter ediderunt Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, Allen Wikgren; apparatum criticum recensuerunt et editionem novis curis elaboraverunt Kurt Aland et Barbara Aland una cum Instituto studiorum textus Novi Testamenti Monasteriensi (Westphalia). 26th edition. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1979; 27th edition, 1993.
This critical edition, commonly called "Nestle-Aland," purports to be the twenty-sixth in the series of "Nestle" editions (see Nestle 1898 and Nestle 1927); but for this edition the Nestle text was replaced by the text of Aland Black Metzger Wikren Martini 1975, and major changes were also made in the apparatus. The publisher of the Nestle editions, the Wurttembergische Bibelanstalt, was also reconstituted as the Deutsche Bibelgesellshaft prior to its appearance. In short, the "26th edition" has almost nothing in common with the editions of Eberhard Nestle.
The apparatus is redesigned to display the readings of the most important witnesses (called "constant witnesses") in every place where there is a reasonable doubt concerning the text, and also in some places where the variations are thought to be useful for an understanding of the manuscript tradition; but, unlike the "major" critical editions of Tischendorf, Tregelles and von Soden, it does not give full information on any given manuscript. The references to the dissenting readings of Tischendorf, Westcott & Hort and Weiss which were formerly included in the Nestle apparatus are omitted; instead, the readings of seven critical editions are indicated in an appendix: Tischendorf, Westcott & Hort, von Soden, Vogels, Merk, Bover, and Nestle 25 (1)
The Introduction of the 26th edition, like the previous Nestle editions, gives only the most necessary information for its use; a full introduction is provided separately in Aland and Aland 1981. For a detailed explanation and defense of the text of the UBS third edition see Metzger 1975. For an English version that closely follows the text see the New Revised Standard Version. For an literal interlinear translation see Douglas 1990. For a complete collation of the text against Nestle 25, with statistical studies appended, see David Holly, Comparative Studies in Recent Greek New Testament Texts: Nestle-Aland's 25th and 26th Editions (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1983). For a collection in English of its significant variations from the text underlying the King James version see the marginal annotations of the New King James Version.
The 27th edition (1993) presents the same text as the 26th edition, with a slightly revised apparatus and a much improved Introduction. This edition is distributed in America by the American Bible Society, 1865 Broadway, New York, NY 10023.
Aland and Aland, 1981. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, Der Text des Neuen Testaments: Einfuhrung in die wissenschaftlishen Ausgaben sowie in Theorie und Praxis der modernen Textkritik. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1981. English translation: The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987. 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, 1989.
This introduction gives a great deal of specific information about the "Nestle-Aland" edition (see Aland et al. 1979) and the UBS editions (see Aland Black Metzger Wikren Martini 1975), for which it is intended to supply comprehensive Prolegomena. As a general introduction, however, it is in several ways less satisfactory than Metzger 1964.
Aland, Aland, Karavidopoulos, Metzger, Martini, 1993. Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo Martini, Bruce Metzger, The Greek New Testament. 4th edition. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, 1993.
The text of this edition is identical to that of the third UBS edition (see Aland Black Metzger Wikren Martini 1975), but the apparatus is thoroughly revised and corrected. Changes in the committee are worthy of note: Johannes Karavidopoulos and Barbara Aland (wife of Kurt) have filled vacancies left by Matthew Black and Allen Wikren, with Barbara Aland presiding over the committee.
Aldus, 1518. Aldus Manutius, Panta ta kat exoken kaloumena biblia theias delade graphes palaias te kai neas [Romanized Greek]. Sacrae Scripturae Veteris Novaeque omnia. Venice: Aldus Manutius, 1518.
The so-called Aldine Bible, in which the Septuagint was printed for the first time. The New Testament portion is a reprint of Erasmus' first edition. Erasmus was for a while unaware of this fact, and so in preparation for his second edition he asked some friends in Basle to adopt the readings of Aldine text at the end of Revelation. This of course led to the discovery that the two texts were identical.
Alford, 1849. Henry Alford, The Greek Testament; with a critically revised Text, a digest of various readings, marginal references to verbal and idiomatic usage, Prolegomena, and a critical and exegetical Commentary. For the use of Theological Students and Ministers. Vol I, containing the four Gospels. London, 1849; 2nd ed., 1854; 3rd ed., 1855. Vol II, containing the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles to the Romans and Corinthians, 1852; 2nd ed., 1855. Vol III, containing Galatians to Philemon, 1856. Vol IV, containing Hebrews to Revelation, 1859 and 1860 (issued in two parts).
Alford's volumes were continually under revision, so that eventually the first two reached a seventh edition, while the last two reached only a fifth. The final editions were reprinted together in 1958 by Moody Press, Chicago. The text changes from edition to edition, gradually moving further away from the Received Text until it closely resembles that of Tregelles. In his latest Prolegomena he says, "The text which I have adopted has been constructed by following in all ordinary cases the united or preponderating evidence of the most ancient authorities. . .[while] applying those principles of criticism which appear to furnish sound criteria of a spurious or genuine reading." (vol 1, page 81). As a statement of such principles he then reprints a section of Griesbach's Prolegomena (for which see Griesbach 1796). In doubtful cases, he says, "I have found of especial service the critical notices prefixed to each chapter in Meyer's Commentary" (page 85, note 4. see Meyer 1883).
Scholars did not much esteem Alford's text and notes, because these were often very unsatisfactory wherever he did not simply follow others. But Alford's work was important nonetheless, because it made available to English students, in convenient and inexpensive form, a great deal of critical and philological lore from the works of the famous German expositors. Therefore it became very popular and was much studied. A collation of Alford's text as it stood in 1871 against Estienne 1550 is given in Newberry 1877.
Alford, 1872. Henry Alford, The New Testament for English Readers: Containing the Authorized Version, Marginal Corrections of Readings and Renderings, Marginal References, and a Critical and Explanatory Commentary. Boston: Lee and Shepherd, 1872.
This book is not an English edition of Alford's Greek Testament (see Alford 1849), which is a completely different work. Here Alford presents a generously annotated edition of the King James version, and in his critical notes he gives only the various readings (in English) that he recommends. Editors and manuscripts are not cited.
Anderson, 1918. Harry Tompkins Anderson, The New Testament, translated from the Sinaitic Manuscript discovered by Constantine Tischendorf at Mount Sinai. Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Company, 1918.
An English version of Codex Sinaiticus.
Anderson and Anderson, 1992. George W. Anderson and Debra E. Anderson, A Textual Key to the New Testament: A List of Omissions and Changes. London: Trinitarian Bible Society, 1992.
This pamphlet of only fourteen pages is a handy review of the most important textual differences (in English) between the Greek text presumed to underlie the King James version (see Scrivener 1881) and the one used by the translators of the New American Standard Bible and Nestle 1927).
1. This collation is defective, in that it does not show where Nestle brackets and others do not: e.g., the words in Mat 5:11, 14:12, 14:16, 22:35, are not bracketed in Westcott & Hort. There are also sigla errors regarding the Westcott & Hort text at Mat 19:24, John 6:46, and 1 Cor 14:16. A variant for John 16:13 is given as if for John 16:14. In Acts 7:13, the Westcott & Hort text is wrongly said to follow the reading of A when in fact it follows B.
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