Old Testament Bibliography


Bill T. Arnold and Bryan E. Beyer, Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1999. 512 pages. A survey designed for use in undergraduate Bible courses in conservative schools. Written on a popular level. Includes many color graphics, side bars, charts, and also discusses modern applications. Interacts irenically with liberal views.

Gleason L. Archer, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody Press, 1964. 2nd ed. 1974. 3rd ed. 1994. 608 pages. ISBN: 0802482007. A standard conservative survey, often polemical.

Raymond B. Dillard and Tremper Longman III, An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994. A moderately conservative introduction that embraces higher-critical methods. The authors tend to be noncommittal on important questions of authorship that have divided liberals from conservatives. Regarding the book of Isaiah, they maintain that the belief that Isaiah wrote it “should not be made a theological shibboleth (Judges 12:6) or test for orthodoxy” (p. 275). Regarding Daniel, they leave open “the possibility that some later unnamed disciples framed his speeches or even added some or all of the third-person stories” (p. 332).

Otto Eissfeldt, The Old Testament, An Introduction. New York: Harper and Row, 1965. Translated from the third German edition by Peter R. Ackroyd. The standard scholarly introduction from a secular/liberal perspective. Largely ignores conservative views.

Roland K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1969. 1,325 pages. The most satisfactory scholarly introduction written from a conservative perspective in recent years. Includes extensive, technical critique of liberal views.

Karl Friedrich Keil, Manual of Historico-Critical Introduction to the Canonical Scriptures of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Translated from the second German edition by George C. M. Douglas. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1870. Reprinted ca. 1990. Out-of-date in several ways, but still valuable. Much more technical than introductions published in the 20th century.

Edward J. Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949. 2nd edition 1964. A brief conservative survey.

Hebrew Language

William Chomsky, Hebrew: The Eternal Language. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1957.

Edward Y. Kutscher, A History of the Hebrew language, edited by Raphael Kutscher. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University, 1982. 306 pages. ISBN: 9652233978.

Henry Craik, The Hebrew Language: Its History and Characteristics, Including Improved Renderings of Select Passages in our Authorized Translation of the Old Testament. London: Bagster, 1860. 187 pages.

James Barr, Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. 354 pages. ISBN: 0198266189.

Nahum M. Waldman, The Recent Study of Hebrew: A Survey of the Literature with Selected Bibliography. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1989. 464 pages. ISBN: 0878209085. A good survey of literature on Hebrew. Includes a bibliography of almost 200 pages.


Jacob ben Hayyin, ed., Biblia Rabbinica: A Reprint of the 1525 Venice Edition. 4 volumes. Jerusalem: Makor Publishing, 1972. A reprint of the Rabbinic Bible originally published by Daniel Bomberg in Venice.

Aharon Dotan, ed. Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia, Prepared according to the Vocalization, Accents, and Masora of Aaron ben Moses ben Asher in the Leningrad Codex. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson Publishers, 2001. Usually referred to as BHL. An inexpensive edition designed for Jewish liturgical use, with careful attention to accents. Does not include a critical apparatus.

Norman H. Snaith, Sefer Torah, Nevi’im u-Khetuvim [title transliterated from Hebrew script]. London: British and Foreign Bible Society, 1958. Reprinted under the title The Hebrew Scriptures. ISBN: 0564000299. An inexpensive edition intended for translators, based on Sephardic manuscripts of the ben Asher family, especially British Library Manuscript Or.2626-8. Does not include a text-critical apparatus.

Mer Letteris, ed., The Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament, Hebrew and English. London: British and Foreign Bible Society, 1866. Often reprinted. The Hebrew text here is that edited by Mer Letteris (Sefer Torah, Nevi’im u-Khetuvim, Berlin, 1866), who with very few changes followed the earlier edition of Van der Hooght. The King James Version is printed in a parallel column. The edition was designed for use by missionary translators, and continues to be sold by the American Bible Society (ISBN: 0564000396).

The JPS Hebrew-English Tanakh. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1999. ISBN: 0827606567. The Hebrew text from the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and the English text from the New JPS Tanakh (1985) arranged in parallel columns. A very convenient volume for students.

Rudolf Kittel, ed., Biblia Hebraica: Adjuvantibus W. Baumgartner, G. Beer, J. Begrich, J.A. Bewer, F. Buhl, J. Hempel, F. Horst, M. Noth, O. Procksch, G. Quell, Th. H. Robinson, W. Rudolph, H.H. Schaeder, Edidit Rud. Kittel, Textum Masoreticum Curavit P. Kahl, Editionem Tertiam Denuo Elaboratam ad Finem Perduxerunt Editionem Septimam Auxerunt et Emendaverunt A. Alt et O. Eissfelt. Suttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1937. This is the third Biblia Hebraica edited by Kittel. After his death in 1929 it was completed by Alt and Eissfeldt, and finished in 1937. In it the text of ben Chayyim is replaced by that of the Leningrad codex, as “the best available representative at this time of the ben Asher text” (Preface). The critical apparatus was edited by the various contributors listed in the title, and this apparatus was enlarged in subsequent editions, reaching a seventh edition in 1951. It was the standard text used by scholars for forty years, from 1937 to 1977, commonly cited by the abbreviation BHK. In 1977 a new edition with thoroughly revised apparatus appeared under a new title, the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (see below).

Karl Elliger and Wilhelm Rudolph, eds., Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia / quae antea cooperantibus A. Alt, O. Eissfeldt, P. Kahle ediderat R. Kittel; editio funditus renovata, adjuvantibus H. Bardtke ... [et al.] cooperantibus H.P. Rüger et J. Ziegler ediderunt K. Elliger et W. Rudolph; textum Masoreticum curavit H.P. Rüger, Masoram elaboravit G.E. Weil. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1977. This edition first appeared in fascicles beginnning in 1967, and was printed in one volume in 1977. A “corrected” third edition was issued in 1987, and a fifth edition in 1997. Since 1977 it has been the standard text for academic purposes, commonly referred to as BHS. The text, taken from the previous editions of Kittel, is based on the Leningrad Codex. The critical apparatus has been thoroughly revised, but, like Kittel’s apparatus, it still has many suggestions for emendation that are purely speculative. An explanation of the symbols and Latin abbreviations may be found in the works of Scott and Wonneberger listed immediately below.

Guides to Using the BHS

William R. Scott, A Simplified Guide to BHS: Critical Apparatus, Masora, Accents, Unusual Letters and Other Markings. Berkeley, California: Bibal Press, 1987. ISBN: 0941037045. 2nd ed., 1990. ISBN: 0941037142. A handy guide to using the apparatus of BHS. Includes H. P. Rüger’s An English Key to the Latin Words and Symbols of BHS (American Bible Society, 1990).

Reinhard Wonneberger, Understanding BHS: A Manual for the Users of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Subsidia Biblica. Vol. 8. Translated from the German by Dwight R. Daniels. Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1984. ISBN: 8876535594. 2nd ed. 1990. ISBN: 8876535780. 104 pages. More detailed than Scott. Wonneberger focuses on explaining and evaluating the apparatus in BHS and the theory that underlies it.

Page H. Kelley, Daniel S. Mynatt, and Timothy G. Crawford, The Masorah of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Introduction and Annotated Glossary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998. A guide to the Masoretic scribal notes printed in the margins of BHS.

Hebrew-English Interlinear editions

Jay P. Green, ed., The Interlinear Hebrew-Greek-English Bible. 4 volumes. Wilmington, Delaware: Associated Publishers and Authors, 1976. Reprinted in one volume, 1979. 2nd edition 1986 (with Strong’s Concordance numbers above each word) published in 4 volumes by Hendrickson Publishers in Peabody, Massachusetts (ISBN: 0913573302), reprinted 2002 by Sovereign Grace Publishers in Lafayette, Indiana. This is the most accurate and useful interlinear edition available.

John R. Kohlenberger III, ed., The NIV Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979-85. Published in a single volume and with a new introduction in 1987. The Hebrew text is reproduced from the BHS. Kohlenberger’s interlinear translation is, as he puts it, “based on the vocabulary of the NIV” (introduction, xix), and so in many places it mimics the “dynamic equivalence” of the NIV rather than giving a literal translation. Thus the ordinary character and purpose of an interlinear is defeated at many points. For example, in Exodus 29:12 the NIV follows the Septuagint interpretation — “the rest of the blood you shall pour out,” instead of giving a literal translation of the Hebrew, “all of the blood you shall pour out;” and so Kohlenberger puts the English gloss “rest of” under the Hebrew word that means “all” in his interlinear translation, as if the word literally meant “rest of.” The reasons for this inaccuracy of the interlinear translation are unclear, but a possible reason is indicated in the introduction, where Kohlenberger nervously advises readers that nothing in the interlinear translation should be construed in such a way as to call into question the accuracy of the NIV. Another problem is the editor’s occasional failure to recognize where the NIV translators have followed a critically emended text which does not correspond to the Hebrew text printed in the volume. For example, in Genesis 4:15 the Hebrew word laken (לכן) is glossed “not so,” but this word really means “therefore.” The NIV’s “not so” here is based upon an emendation of the text: lo ken (לא כן), as explained in the footnote. In Genesis 49:10 the Hebrew text has the very obscure words “until Shiloh comes,” but the NIV has “until he comes to whom it belongs,” an interpretation which is based upon an emendation of the Hebrew text (the NIV fails to mention in its margin that a textual emendation has been made here), and so—betrayed by the NIV, it seems—Kohlenberger puts the English gloss “he whose” under the Hebrew word “Shiloh” in his interlinear translation, as if that were a possible meaning of the word as it stands in the unemended text. In some places there are mistakes that are hard to account for, as in Judges 11:34, where a word which means “only one” (יחידה) is glossed “along.” Is this a typographical error, in which “along” is put for “alone”? If so, it only causes us to wonder why Kohlenberger would have glossed the word as “alone” instead of “only one.” Errors of interpretation like this are serious faults in an interlinear translation, and they bring into question the competence of the editor. He seems to have relied upon the NIV in making the interlinear translation, without enough independent knowledge of Hebrew to see where the NIV departs from the BHS text.

Textual Criticism

Ellis R. Brotzman, Old Testament Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994. 208 pages. ISBN: 0801010659. Brief and conservative.

Peter Kyle McCarter, Textual Criticism: Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Old Testament Guides. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986. 94 pages. ISBN: 0800604717. Brief. Includes helpful glossary. Tends to emphasize the importance of the LXX.

Emanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992. ISBN: 0800626877. 2nd ed., 2001. ISBN: 0800634292. 456 pages. The most important comprehensive treatment in English. Emphasizes contribution of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Emanuel Tov, The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research. Jerusalem: Simor Ltd, 1981.

Jacob Weingreen, Introduction to the Critical Study of the Text of the Hebrew Bible. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. 103 pages. ISBN: 0198154534.

Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979. Translated from the fourth edition of Würthwein’s Der Text des Alten Testaments (Stuttgart, 1973).


George V. Wigram, ed., The Englishman’s Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament: Being an Attempt at a Verbal Connection between the Original and the English Translation; with Indexes, a List of the Proper Names, and their Occurrences, etc. London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1843. With many subsequent editions and reprints, most recently by Hendrickson: The New Englishman’s Hebrew-Aramaic Concordance. Coded to the Strong’s Concordance Numbering System (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 1984). Very useful to students with little Hebrew, this work might also serve as a lexicon. Organized by alphabetical order of the Hebrew words, but the context lines are from the King James Version. The Hendrickson reprint reduces the type size and omits Wigram’s valuable introduction, appendixes and indexes.

John R. Kohlenberger III and James A. Swanson, The Hebrew English Concordance to the Old Testament with the New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1998. 2192 pages. This volume represents Zondervan’s attempt to provide for the NIV a resource similar to Bagster’s Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance, which uses the KJV. It aims to be useful to those who are attempting to do word studies on the basis of the NIV translation by giving the context lines from the NIV instead of from the KJV. The problem here is the same that vitiates Kohlenberger’s NIV-based Interlinear: the NIV is not sufficiently literal for this kind of study.

Gerhard Lisowski, Konkordanz zum hebraischen Alten Testament, nach dem von Paul Kahle in der Biblia Hebraica edidit Rudolf Kittel besorgten Masorertischen Text. Stuttgart: Wurttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1958. 1672 pages. ISBN: 343805230X. Photographic reproduction of a manuscript concordance based on Kittel, Biblia Hebraica, 3rd edition. The entire vocabulary of the Old Testament is included, and German, English, and Latin (not Vulgate) meanings are provided. Introduction in German, Latin, and English. The 3rd edition (corrected), published by H P Rüger, is smaller than the previous editions and has an appendix of about 300 additions and corrections.

Solomon Mandelkern, Veteris Testamenti concordantiae hebraicae atque chaldaicae : quibus continentur cuncta quae in prioribus concordantiis reperiuntur vocabula, lacunis omnibus expletis, emendatis cuiusquemodi vitiis, locis ubique denuo excerptis atque in meliorem formam redactis, vocalibus interdum adscriptis, particulae omnes adhuc nondum collatae, pronomina omnia hic primum congesta atque enarrata, nomina propria omnia separatim commemorata / Servato textu masoretico librorumque sacrorum ordine tradito summa cura collegit et concinnavit Solomon Mandelkern. Lipsiae: Veit et comp., 1896. 1532 pages. Several editions followed. Reprinted many times, most recently the 6th edition in Jerusalem by Schocken Press, 1967. The words are organized by root, with “sin” and “shin” treated separately. There are separate sections for pronouns, proper nouns, and Aramaic roots. Brief definitions are given in Latin. Although more than a century old, this concordance can scarcely be improved upon.

Abraham Even-Shoshan, A New Concordance of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989. This is an improved edition of Even-Shoshan’s A New Concordance of the Bible: thesaurus of the language of the Bible, Hebrew and Aramaic, roots, words, proper names, phrases and synonyms, first published in Jerusalem by Kiryat Sepher Publishing House in 1977. Unlike Mandelkern, Even-Shoshan lists words alphabetically rather than organizing them under roots. The “sin” and “shin” are treated together. Proper nouns, pronouns, and Aramaic are not put in separate sections. It also attempts to provide a concordance of phrases. The editions of this concordance published in Jerusalem were difficult to use because the introduction and verse references were in modern Hebrew. The Baker edition gives biblical references in arabic numerals, and it includes John H. Sailhamer’s helpful Introduction to a New Concordance of the Old Testament.


Francis Brown, Samuel R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, eds., A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament : with an appendix containing the Biblical Aramaic / based on the lexicon of William Gesenius as translated by Edward Robinson : edited with constant reference to the Thesaurus of Gesenius as compiled by E. Rödiger, and with authorized use of the latest German editions of Gesenius’s Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament / by Francis Brown ; with the co-operation of S. R. Driver and Charles A. Briggs. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906. Corrected edition, 1952. Known by the abbreviation BDB. Still the standard lexicon in English. The title is somewhat misleading, because this work bears little resemblance to ‘Robinson’s Gesenius’ (1854), and it should really be considered a new work. Arranged according to root. Includes etymological information from Arabic, Syraic, Aramaic, etc. Published before the Ugaritic material became available. In 1996 Hendrickson Publishers in Peabody Mass. published an inexpensive reprint with Strong’s Concordance numbers in the margins (ISBN: 1565632060).

Benjamin Davidson, The Analytical Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon: Consisting of an Alphabetical Arrangement of Every Word and Inflection Contained in the Old Testament Scriptures, Precisely as They Occur in the Sacred Text, with a Grammatical Analysis of Each Word, and Lexicographical Illustrations of the Meanings, etc. London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1848. Many reprints followed. Lists in alphabetical order, parses, and briefly defines every word of the Old Testament.

William L. Holladay, ed., A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, based on the Lexical Work of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971. 425 pages. An easy-to-use lexicon designed for beginning students.

Ludwig Köhler, Walter Baumgartner and J.J. Stamm, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Revised edition, translated and edited by M.E.J. Richardson. 5 volumes. Leiden: Brill, 1994-2000. This is the most recent complete Hebrew lexicon in English, and it is regarded by many as the best one available, though the five-volume edition at $1,000 is much too expensive for most students. In 2001 it was made available for less than $200 on CD-ROM, and in 2002 it became available for about $100 in a reduced-print unabridged 2-Volume Study Edition.

Wilhelm Gesenius, Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. Translated with additions from the author’s Thesaurus and works, by S. P. Tregelles. London: Samuel Bagster & Sons, 1846. Reprinted many times, most recently in Grand Rapids by Baker Book House (1979) as Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, Translated by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles, Numerically Coded to Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, with an English Index of More Than 12,000 Entries. ISBN: 0801038014. Based on the fourth edition of Gesenius’ Hebräisches und Chaldäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament (Leipzig, 1834).

Wilhelm Gesenius, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, including the Biblical Chaldee, from the Latin of William Gesenius, late Professor of Theology in the University of Halle-Wittemberg, by Edward Robinson, Professor in the Union Theological Seminary, New York, with corrections and large additions, partly furnished by the author in manuscript, and partly condensed from his larger Thesaurus, as completed by Roediger. Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1854.

Ernest D. Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan, 1987. Supplies word histories, etymological clues and conjectures missing from the major lexicons listed above. 32,000 entries.

David J. A. Clines, ed., The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. Sheffield Academic Press, 2011. The first volume appeared in 1993, vol. 2 in 1995, vol. 3 in 1996, vol. 4 in 1998, vol. 5 in 2001, vol. 6 in 2003, vol. 7 in 2010, and vol.8 in 2011. Clines’ Dictionary of Classical Hebrew is meant to cover not only Biblical Hebrew but all sources of the Hebrew language up to 200 AD, and so it includes material from inscriptions, Ben Sira, Qumran, Nahal Hever, Wadi Murabba‘at, etc. And its approach to the analysis of meaning is rather different. The editors claim that “unlike previous dictionaries, it has a theoretical base in modern linguistics” (p. 14), which they think requires the exclusion of all etymological considerations, and a total reliance upon the immediate literary context to determine the meaning of words. The idea here is that the meaning of the words can be determined only by a consideration of the immediate context, so the lexicon depends heavily on the editor’s opinion of what seems appropriate to each context. This “modern linguistics” methodology of the dictionary has been criticized by other scholars, who have pointed out that etymological information must be used to determine the meaning of unusual words, and because different scholars will have different opinions about what the context indicates or requires. Vern Poythress has criticized the dictionary for its speculative treatment of the Hebrew words ab “father” and ben “son,” and we reproduce his comments here.

Theological Dictionaries

G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, and Heinz-Josef Fabry, eds., Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974-2001. This is an English translation of the Theologisches Wörterbuch zum alten Testament. To date 11 volumes (up to panim) have appeared in English.

R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980. Similar in format to Botterweck, but much shorter, simpler, and more conservative.

Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. Translated by Mark E. Biddle. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 1997. 3 vols. 1638 pages. ISBN: 1565631331. Includes a handy index to additional forms used within individual entries.

Willem A. VanGemeren, ed., New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1997. Volumes 1-3 contain lexical articles, volume 4 has topical articles, and volume 5 provides indexes.

Lexical Aids, Reading Helps, etc.

Terry A. Armstrong, Douglas L. Busby, and Cyril F. Carr, A Reader’s Hebrew-English Lexicon of the Old Testament. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980. Reprinted in a single volume by Regency Reference Library in 1989 (ISBN: 0310369800) All Hebrew words used 50 times or less arranged by chapter and verse.

Bruce Einspahr, Index to the Brown, Driver, Briggs Lexicon. Chicago: Moody Press, 1976. Lists vocabulary by chapter and verse with page numbers to the Brown-Driver-Briggs lexicon.

Larry A. Mitchel, A Student’s Vocabulary for Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984. Provides lists of words appearing ten times or more in the OT (arranged by frequency) with an English gloss.

George M. Landes, A Student’s Vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1961. Lists verbal roots in seven sections according to frequency.

Todd S. Beall, William A. Banks, and Colin Smith, Old Testament Parsing Guide. 2 volumes. Chicago: Moody Press, 1990. Gives verse-by-verse parsing for every verb in the Old Testament.

John Joseph Owens, Analytical Key to the Old Testament. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989-92. Parses, translates, and provides a cross-reference to the BDB lexicon for all forms (verbs, nouns, particles, etc.) as they occur in the biblical text.

Robert B. Girdlestone, Synonyms of the Old Testament; their Bearing on Christian Faith and Practice London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1871. 2nd edition, 1897.


Jacob Weingreen, A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939. 316 pages. 2nd edition 1959.

Wilhelm Gesenius, E. Kautzsch, and A. E. Cowley, Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, as Edited by the Late E. Kautzsch, Professor of Theology in the University of Halle. Second English Edition, Revised in Accordance with the Twenty-Eighth German Edition (1909) by A.E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910. Reprinted many times. ISBN: 0198154062. For many years this reference grammar was the most detailed one available in English.

Thomas O. Lambdin, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. New York: Scribners, 1971. Long a standard introductory grammar.

Bruce Waltke and Michael O’Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1990. An intermediate level treatment of Hebrew grammar. Attempts to balance modern and traditional treatments while also interacting with modern linguistics.

Ronald J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax: An Outline. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967. 2nd edition 1976. 122 pages. A very brief treatment with examples.

Dead Sea Scrolls

James C. VanderKam, The Dead Sea Scrolls Today. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994. 210 pages. VanderKam, professor of Hebrew Scriptures at Notre Dame University, reviews the history of the Scrolls and their use in scholarship of both the Old Testament and the New Testament. The treatment takes for granted an acceptance of the historical-critical method.

Martin G. Abegg, Peter W. Flint, and Eugene Charles Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible: The Oldest Known Bible Translated for the First Time into English. San Francisco: Harper, 1999. ISBN: 0060600632. This book is useful for looking up translatable variants in the scrolls, but unfortunately the translation in it leaves much to be desired. The presentation of the variants requires a highly literal translation. “Inclusive language” in a work of this kind is really rather foolish.

Harold Scanlin, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Translations of the Old Testament. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1993. An evaluation of the effects the Qumran manuscripts have had on a number of English translations. Among the translations evaluated were the Revised Standard Version (RSV), the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV), the New English Bible (NEB), the Revised English Bible (REB), the New American Bible (NAB), the Jerusalem Bible (JB), the New Jerusalem Bible (NJB), the New Jewish Version (NJV), the New International Version (NIV), the Good News Bible (GNB), and the New King James Bible (NKJV).

Florentino Garcia Martinez and Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, eds., The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition. 2 vols. Brill Academic Publishers, 1999. ISBN: 9004115471. Two volumes that give the Hebrew and Aramaic texts of the non-biblical scrolls with English translations on facing pages, with information on the text and selected bibliographic references. Aims to be complete for the non-biblical scrolls.