Encyclopædia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible. Edited by T.K. Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black. In 4 volumes. (New York: Macmillan; London: Adam and Charles Black, 1899-1907)

This scholarly reference work is useful to students who are capable of using it with discretion. Many articles are written from the standpoint of an overly skeptical higher criticism. As Frederick W. Danker says, "The great number of leading biblical scholars contributing to this work and the generally high degree of accuracy and completeness pervading it place it high on the priority list, despite its unnecessary skepticism and undue emphasis on conjectural criticism" (Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study 3rd ed. [St. Louis: Concordia, 1970], p. 153). The editors focused on the Old Testament.